Ronald Martin, Robert Patterson, and Mark Martin stage sit-down strike after being refused service at an F. The text also describes some disturbances resulting from the staged sit-ins and forced recognition of CORE's causes and issues.Looking at the map and reading the text, one can perceive the struggles that these Freedom Riders endured in their quest for full citizenship in 1961.Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered a stirring message with the refrain, "I Have a Dream." The 1965 Voting Rights Act created a significant change in the status of African Americans throughout the South. Dating from just after the Civil War, a series of constitutional amendments were passed to protect African Americans. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-95480 (9-12) "We Shall Overcome" seems to have first been sung by striking tobacco workers in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1945. Reproduction Number: LC-USZC4-6172 (9-22) Courtesy of Mr. The Voting Rights Act prohibited the states from using literacy tests, interpreting the Constitution, and other methods of excluding Afric an Americans from voting. Without enforcement by the federal government, however, African Americans, especially those in the South, were gradually denied almost every right of citizenship. In the 1960s the song became the all-but-official anthem of the civil rights movement.
With training and equipment from American military and the CIA, Diem’s security forces cracked down on Viet Minh sympathizers in the south, whom he derisively called Viet Cong (or Vietnamese Communist), arresting some 100,000 people, many of whom were brutally tortured and executed.To fight off both Japanese occupiers and the French colonial administration, political leader Ho Chi Minh—inspired by Chinese and Soviet communism—formed the Viet Minh, or the League for the Independence of Vietnam.Following its 1945 defeat in World War II, Japan withdrew its forces from Vietnam, leaving the French-educated Emperor Bao Dai in control.In 1955, however, the strongly anti-communist politician Ngo Dinh Diem pushed Emperor Bao aside to become president of the Government of the Republic of Vietnam (GVN), often referred to during that era as South Vietnam.With the Cold War intensifying worldwide, the United States hardened its policies against any allies of the Soviet Union, and by 1955 President Dwight D.